science.notes on Instagram

#sciencenotes

🔬🔭💉💊 #ScienceNotes from a neuroscientist (@neurosciencelover Deniz) and her science addicted daughter (@gezi_zamani Alya). 🇺🇸🇹🇷 Ad astra per aspera!

https://youtu.be/zI-YLhT9AE8

Report inappropriate content

0

Happy weekend! Alya is here 😊When my friends at school draw a brain, there is one repeating feature I see in their art, the curvy and folded outer layer of the brain. Today, I wanted to tell you all about those signature squiggly layers of the brain! • The cerebral cortex is the last layer of the brain. It is the most noticeable visible feature of the human brain, giving the general public (my friends also) to recognize a brain’s surface immediately. The surface of the cerebral cortex is extensively folded; this allows for the surface area of the cerebral cortex to enlarge so it can hold a higher amount of neurons necessary for its functions. • The cerebral cortex is made up of three types of areas: sensory, motor, and association areas. Sensory areas receive information related to sensation, and different areas of the cortex specialize in processing information from the five senses. • The motor areas of the cerebral cortex are involved in movement. Motor areas are primarily found in the frontal lobe and contain the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and supplementary motor cortex. These three make it possible for mammals to move. • While sensory and motor areas both obviously play a crucial role in healthy thought and behavior, association areas are also extremely important. Association areas are all around the cortex and work on combining information from multiple brain regions. Combining the information adds on to the complexity of the perception that can be gained from only one sense or complex perceptive processes, for example, creation and making a decision.  But an association area can also be involved in taking in information from one specific sense, this is called a unimodal association area. And the other association areas with involved with multiple senses and play a role in high-level cognitive functions; they are called multimodal association areas. • All these crucial areas make up the cerebral cortex, to serve one of the most important organs in your body, your brain. Actually, when you think about it, you were working your cerebral cortex while you were reading this!

3

4

0

Hello all! Alya is here. Our 7th grade science teacher assigned us to create a 3D licence plate with lab safety rules. Here is mine... • Sharp materials can cause many consequences if not handled carefully. What is our number one priority in the lab? Safety! Broken glass is one of the sharp objects that students can come across during experiments in their school library. Accidents happen, and a beaker slipping out of the hands of a student is a probability, the sharp glass may come in contact with skin, cause someone to trip, or even hurt a student. Everyone going into an experiment must know the safety rules for handling broken glass. • The symbols on the license plate are “DSPZSAF”, this is representing “dispose safe”. The rule used in this license plate focuses on one lab rule, but actually combines three lab safety rules. First is, “Broken glassware should not be disposed of in a classroom trashcan. There is a special glass disposal container for it”, nonetheless also includes, “If a piece of glassware gets broken, do not try to clean it up by yourself, notify the teacher.” Not disposing broken glassware correctly can lead up to accidents, like the sharp, broken glass can rip the trash bags and result in an injury of a person. • • • • • #7thgrade #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience #neuroscientist #scientist #science #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #studynotes #travelersnotebook #stationeryaddict #stationaryaddict #stationary #stationery #handlettering #bujo #artjournalpage #artjournal #vintagejournal #snailmail #studyinspiration #artjournaling #creativeart

0

"The act of writing itself is like an act of love. There is contact. There is exchange too. We no longer know whether the words come out of the ink onto the page, or whether they emerge from the page itself where they were sleeping, the ink merely giving them colour." -Georges Rodenbach • • • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #scientist #science #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #studynotes #travelersnotebook #stationeryaddict #stationaryaddict #stationary #stationery #handlettering #bujo #artjournalpage #artjournal #vintagejournal #snailmail #studyinspiration #artjournaling #snailmailrevolution #snailmailart #mektuparkadasi #mektup

11

4

I made this journal page before coming Boston. Yes, I am currently attending #IASP2018, one of the most important conference for pain researchers. • "The World Congress on Pain® is the preeminent global meeting devoted to sharing new developments in pain research, treatment, and education. The meeting brings together thousands of delegates from more than 100 countries across multiple disciplines. Participants include basic scientists, researchers, clinicians, physicians, students, and trainees—all of whom are devoted to improving pain relief worldwide." (www.iaspworldcongressonpain.org) • • • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience #neuroscientist #scientist #science #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #scientistlife #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #studynotes #travelersnotebook #stationeryaddict #stationery #handlettering #journaling #artjournalpage #artjournal #vintagejournal #studyinspiration #artjournaling #bilimokulu #bilimkadini #bilimkulubu

2

Hello all! Here is a big surprise. @the_sushi_scientist & @science.notes met each other at IASP2018 in Boston. A very nice collaboration Janelle! • Menthol, found naturally in mint and added to some cigarettes, is preferred by ~25% of US smokers. Mentholated cigarette smokers find it harder to quit [7]. Demographically, they tend to be preferred by African-Americans [1,2], females [3], and young individuals initiating smoking [6]. • Importantly, menthol additive may inhibit nicotine metabolism [10,11]. Menthol is a ligand for transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels, including TRPM8 (cold-sensitive channels) [12]. Menthol’s sensory effects may lead to an increase in nicotine intake through a “cooling” effect and/or masking of the nicotine taste. Oral menthol can reduce the aversive effects of oral nicotine through TRPM8 receptor involvement [13]. However, menthol is also a non-competitive antagonist for multiple nAChRs [14]. Thus, menthol is a flavoring agent with pharmacological characteristics that can modulate the effects of nicotine on its receptors. • Menthol is reported to enhance the reinforcing actions of nicotine [15]. My recent findings showed that menthol: 1) increases nicotine reward-like effects via central and sensory mechanisms 2) alters nicotine-induced dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region associated with nicotine reward. It has recently been reported that menthol enhances reward-like behavior of nicotine by potentiating nicotine-induced changes in nAChR function, nAChR upregulation, and dopamine neuron excitability [16]. Further, mentholated cigarettes smoking, or oral mentholated nicotine products consumption, have increased in youth in the last two decades. Therefore, menthol may increase the risk ratio for nicotine addiction in youth. My latest data revealed that menthol increases nicotine consumption in a sex-, age- and concentration-dependent manner. • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience #neuroscientist #scientist #science #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #studynotes #travelersnotebook #stationeryaddict

3

2

We are continuing “women astronomers” theme with Sally Ride, Vera Rubin and Wang Zhenyi. (Vol. 3 by Alya Peren) • On June 18, 1983 the first American woman in space launched with her four crew mates in the space shuttle Challenger. She was in space for six days. Sally Ride, May 26, 1951 – July 23, 2012, was the third woman to have gone to space after Valentina Tereshkova, 1963, and Svetlana Savitskaya, 1982 [1]. • Vera Rubin (1928-2016) is the first person who discovered the evidence of dark matter. After graduating from astronomy in 1948, Rubin tried to enroll in a graduate program in Princeton University, but ended up enrolling Cornell University because Princeton would not except women. Princeton only started to enroll woman 27 years after Vera Rubin applied. Around the 1960s and 1970s Rubin and Kent Ford, her colleague, used a very sensitive spectrometer to calculate the orbital speeds of the stars in different parts of galaxies. That was when they discovered something totally unpredicted [2,3]. DARK MATTER!!! • One of the greatest scientists in the Qing dynasty was Wang Zhenyi (1768-1797), who broke the gender inequality in STEM at that time. She conducted experiments by herself and wrote many books explaining eclipses, mathematics, and stars. Zhenyi and her family worked to educate her in fields of astronomy, mathematics, geography, and medicine. At the time where eclipses were considered as mystical events, Wang Zhenyi made a model in her own backyard that explained eclipses accurately. Wang Zhenyi was a genius in areas where women were not believed to be in at that time. She sadly passed away when she was 29. Her great achievements are still remembered today! [4,5,6] • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #scienceisfun #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #studynotes #travelersnotebook #letteringlove #letteringcommunity #stationeryaddict #handlettering #bujo #artjournalpage #artjournal #vintagejournal #brushlettering #artjournaling #astronomy #astronomi #gokbilim #bilimokulu #bilimkulubu #womenwhoscience

3

Today, we would like to introduce some of the women astronomers to you with our art-journal page dedicated to them. (Vol.2, by Alya) • Oh, Be A Fine Girl/Guy Kiss Me! That phrase might sound weird to people who hear it, but it is actually a mnemonic to remember the absorption of light by atoms in the star’s atmosphere. Even though this mnemonic was not made by Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941), she was the spectacular scientist who made the scheme of to classify the stars according to their temperature. The divisions are O, B, A, F, G, K, and M, and she retained P for planetary nebula and Q for unusual stars. Her phenomenal spectral classifications were universally adopted and are used to this date [1,2,3]. • Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921) was an outstanding woman scientist that discovered the “relationship between period and luminosity in Cepheid variables” [4]. She used these observations to develop a new tool for estimating the distances of stars and galaxies, a huge development for understanding the size and evolution of the universe [5]. Even after Leavitt’s death, her studies impacted science greatly. Edwin Hubble used the relationship between the period and luminosity of the Cepheid variables to determine that the universe was expanding. Decades later in the 1990s, astronomers built on this work by discovering that the expansion is quickening [5]. • Mae C. Jemison (1965-) is the first African-American woman to travel to space. After her launch on the 1992, she orbited for eight days while onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. After Sally Ride went to space Jemison was encouraged to apply to the astronaut program, she was rejected at first because of the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986 but later received a call if she was still interested to participate in the program. After training and working in NASA, she flew to space with six other crew members on the 12th of September, 1992 [6,7]. • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #scienceisfun #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #studynotes #travelersnotebook #letteringlove #letteringcommunity #stationeryaddict

5

4

2

Here is the second woman astronomer that I discovered after mom assigned me to search women in astronomy. • On June 16, 1963, Soviet Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova (1937-) became the first woman to travel into space, aboard Vostok 6. She returned to land after 48 orbits and 71 hours, having spent more time in space than all U.S. astronauts combined to that date [1]. • When Valentina Tereshkova was 22 she made her first parachute jump. While she was continuing her education and work, Tereshkova started parachuting in her spare time, and this is what led her to be chosen by the Soviet space program to train to be a cosmonaut. Her interest in parachuting and space cached the USSR’s eye and led her to be chosen to participate in the Vostok 5 and 6 missions [1,2]. • The Soviets were determined to send a woman to space before the United States. So they chose Tereshkova, three other women parachutists, and one-woman pilot to start training for the challenging processes of the Vostok 6 space flight. One of the most challenging procedures for the flight was a 20,000 feet mandatory ejection from the capsule [1,2]. • After the training, only Tereshkova went to space. She successfully parachuted back to Earth after jumping at 20,000 feet. After her landing Valentina was given the title of the Hera of the Soviet Union. Even though Valentina Tereshkova’s flight and mission was successful, the next time a woman flew to space was 19 years after her and was also from the USSR [2]. • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes  #neuroscience #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #science #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #studynotes #travelersnotebook #journaling #stationeryaddict #bujo #artjournalpage #artjournal #getmessyartjournal #vintagejournal #brushlettering #studyinspiration #travelersjournal #artjournaling #bilimokulu #bilimkulubu #astronomy #astronomi #gokbilim • • • [1] https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-woman-in-space [2] https://www.biography.com/people/valentina-tereshkova-022516

5

What is your favorite science-related song? This week's #letteringchallenge by @steamotype is science mixtape! When I saw their post yesterday, "I Call the Stars" cover by Agatha&Fine written by Empty Boat was the first song that came to mind. • Even though the main theme of this song is not related to science, I am always reminded of astronomy and science when I listen to this song because the lyrics contain stars and cycle of nature. • You should listen to this song by Agatha&Fine on YouTube. Their version is the only one I listen to. I can listen to it back to back for a long time. Make sure to check our bio for the link today! • For future listening 👉https://youtu.be/PoMuXYNXI-E • Btw, Alya sings this song beautifully. • • • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes  #neuroscience #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #scienceisfun #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #studynotes #travelersnotebook #letteringlove #letteringcommunity #stationeryaddict #handlettering #bujo #artjournalpage #artjournal #brushlettering #studyinspiration #astronomi #gokbilim #bilimokulu #bilimkulubu #travelersjournal #artjournaling

0

2

Caffeine is the most widely psychoactive substance ingested in the world. It can be originated from both plants and synthetic sources. In the US, more than 85% of the adults consume a variety of caffeinated beverages, dietary supplements, and food products regularly, among them, average consumption is more than 200 mg of caffeine per day [1,2]. Some of the effects of caffeine can be listed as follows: stimulant effect [3], alertness effect [4], procognitive effects [5], and many more... When it is consumed, caffeine concentration in the body peaks about 1 hour after ingestion [6]. • Ok, why do you drink caffeine? Let’s look at its neuropharmacology. Caffeine acts as an antagonist at adenosine receptors, therefore it blocks endogenous adenosine [2]. Since caffeine inhibits the adenosine, it produces a range of effects opposite those of adenosine, including the behavioral stimulant effects [7]. One of those is stimulating dopaminergic activity. Normally, there is a negative modulatory effect of adenosine at dopamine receptors. When caffeine blocks it, dopamine release at nucleus accumbens (a brain region associated with reward mechanisms of many drugs of dependence, including amphetamines and cocaine) is increased [8]. It seems that increased dopamine release may be a specific neuropharmacological mechanism underlying the addictive potential of caffeine. • Yes, although several studies showed that there is an addictive potential of caffeine and despite a lot of pressure from doctors, caffeine addiction has not yet been classified as a mental disorder by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). However, some caffeine related problems had attention to be included in DSM-5. For example, both caffeine withdrawal and caffeine overdose did make it into the latest diagnostic manual. Caffeine use disorder is considered a condition for further study in DSM-5. The closely related caffeine dependence syndrome is a recognized disorder in The WHO’s “The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems” (ICD-10) [9]. • I think, coffee is addictive to me, thereby caffeine 😊. I have many words to say, maybe in the future.

2