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🔬🔭💉💊 #ScienceNotes from a neuroscientist (@neurosciencelover) and her science addicted daughter (@gezi_zamani). 🇺🇸🇹🇷 Ad astra per aspera!

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Have you ever wondered about the treatments and more over medicine used in the early ages? Well we decided to find out what Korean Traditional Medicine (KTM, #한의학, or #향약) is! • 》KTM treatments are acupuncture, spine manipulation, and herbal medicine performed on patients. Korean Medicine is still used widely in Korea and surrounding Asian countries. These traditions are believed to be started along 3000 BC. The treatments back at that time were mostly used to tend injuries and pain. KTM is also influenced by its neighboring countries, such as Chinese Traditional Medicine. The difference between the treatments are unique herbs in both, that was found by myths and books published in the 15th century. In the Goryeo Dynasty doctors started to publish books and look into herbs and medical theories. Under the Joseon Dynasty nurse systems were instructed and more developments were made to the herbs used. (TBC) • • • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #scienceisfun #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #medlove #studynotes #snailmailrevolution #stationeryaddict #handlettering #bujo #artjournalpage #artjournal #artjournaling #getmessyartjournal #brushlettering #studyinspiration #kirtasiye #kirtasiyeaski #bilimokulu #bilimkulubu

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Have you received one of those? 😊 If yes, the missing wax stamp (post officer did not accept with them, therefore we took out) on your enveleope can be seen in this video. Lol. Thank you again for joining our lettering challenge in June. • • • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #scienceisfun #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #medlove #studynotes #letteringchallenge #letteringlove #letteringcommunity #stationeryaddict #handlettering #bujo #artjournalpage #brushlettering #studyinspiration #artjournal #kaligraflar #kirtasiye #kirtasiyeaski #moderncalligraphy #snailmail #snailmailrevolution

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Eric Kandel, Volume 2, by Alya & Cenk. • 》Eric Kandel’s study was breakthrough. After Kandel’s study, scientists have gone one step further. Scientists are trying to understand the mystery of storage of information in neurons by looking for parallels between the integrated circuit of computers and the nervous system. However, computers are unfit to model brain functions completely. One of the reasons is their lack plasticity. While the brain can change its connections easily as a result of past experience, emotion, creativity, learning, and sensory, computers cannot change their circuit structures. Although some computers can do that, they are very far from the brain capacity about plasticity. In addition, the brain can add new connections due to differentiation of stem cells. However, again, computers are not capable of adding new circuits to themselves. • 》To understand the plasticity of brain and its storage skill, Kandel, his lab mates, and neuroscientists used electrical circuit models to analyze ion flow across glial and neuronal plasma membrane (R-C circuit). Because of Kandel’s fascinating studies, now many scientists are working in this field to discover the mysteries of brain. Also, his studies force physics and engineering fields to make inventions on quantum computing. • 》If scientists can use quantum computers in neuroscience, brain models would be better because neuronal connection is complex, and quantum computer can display the complexity of neuronal interaction and it can give us new information on our brains. All of these are going to influence the world greatly in the future in means of understanding of brain very well. We owe all of that to Eric Kandel.

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Yesterday, while playing card games together along with our guest, Cenk, mom started a conversation on Eric Kandel and his work. I told her that I didn’t know who he was. So, she said it was my homework to research Eric Kandel and most importantly his work. • Cenk and I spent most of our day researching these topics. Since we found so much material, we are going to do 2 posts about the topic. This is Volume 1 by Alya & Cenk. • 》Eric Kandel, (1929- ) is a known neuroscientist and a professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics in the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University. Kandel’s research is on the understanding the mystery of storage information, memory, in neurons by using cell and molecular biological studies. Neurons communicate by sending chemical and electrical signals to each other. These signals are the reason of our personalities, behaviors and bodies. As can be understood, people’s personalities, behaviors, and bodies change with time because these signals are also changing. Kandel’s study has shown which genes are responsible for that, how these genes are changed, and how these changes contributed to form of new connection of neurons in the brain. Thanks to this work by using Aplysia model organism, he was awarded by the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, in 2000. This study has opened new door in neuroscience for understanding of brain memory and its plasticity. • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #scienceisfun #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #medlove #studynotes #letteringchallenge #letteringlove #letteringcommunity #stationeryaddict #handlettering #bujo #artjournalpage #brushlettering #studyinspiration #artjournal #kaligraflar #kirtasiye #kirtasiyeaski #bilimokulu #bilimkulubu #EricKandel

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Dear letterers who participated our #scienceletters challenge, thank you for joining. • We loved all your posts and we were also inspired by them. • We also thank to @steamotype for featuring our challenge. • We would like to send a thank you card including some #artjournal goodies (tags, stickers, stamps, etc.). Please see 2nd pic👉swipe it. • Please DM us your address, so we can send you one of the #artjournaling goodies envelope. @angiepedriv @christicarl @moonbug_design @evelucileanne @redefinedcollection @loveandletter_tay @colorwhenconvenient @cellsoflife @steamotype • • • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #scienceisfun #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #medlove #studynotes #letteringchallenge #letteringlove #letteringcommunity #stationeryaddict #handlettering #bujo #bujoaddict #artjournalpage #brushlettering #JournalAddict #studyinspiration #kirtasiye #kirtasiyeaski

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Neuropharmacology is a branch of pharmacology (the study of medicines and drugs) dealing with the effects of drugs on the nervous system including their action, their use, and their effects on the body. • Two main branches of neuropharmacology, behavioral and molecular neuropharmacology, are concerned with the interactions of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, neuromodulators, enzymes, second messengers, co-transporters, ion channels, and receptor proteins in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Studying these interactions, neuropharmacologists (that's me 😊) are developing drugs to treat many different neurological disorders, including pain. • An analgesic or painkiller refers to a drug or medicine for relieving pain. These drugs act on the peripheral and/or central nervous systems to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. The treatment effect is usually assessed by the reduction in pain intensity on a visual analogue scale or an 11-point numerical rating scale ranging from ‘no pain’ to ‘worst possible pain’. • Current pharmacological treatment approaches to pain include classical analgesics such as opiates and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and other agents such as tricyclic antidepressants, local anesthetics and anticonvulsants. Although there have been improvements to these analgesic mainstays in terms of formulation, and selectivity, there have been few analgesic drugs which have made a significant impact on analgesic treatment. Many patients suffer acute pain after surgery and persistent pain syndromes (e.g. arthritis pain, migraine, cancer pain and neuropathic pains) represent a significant unmet need in terms of analgesic drug therapy.  Thus, NSAIDs exhibit only little if any efficacy for many types of persistent pain, and the long-term use of opioids in patients with non-malignant pains, for example, remains controversial because of tolerance and sensitization.  Moreover, both classes of analgesic drugs upon long-term use produce serious side effects.  Accordingly, safer and more efficacious analgesic agents are needed. • 👇

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Hi everyone and happy weekend! We can't believe, how June has passed so quickly. We have just one more day! Alya and I combined last 4 #scienceletters for tomorrow. We enjoyed a lot this lettering challenge and we think to do one more round with addiction in the future. Thank you all for joining our lettering challenge. Each post was beautiful in their own way. We LOVED all of them and we are also inspired by them. For example, today's post! To see our inspiration 👉 swipe! We will have a surprise to all participants of our challenge. We will announce on Sunday. Stay tuned. • Back to science 👇 • Communication between neurons can be electrical and/or chemical. • The chemical communication happens via synapse and neurotransmitters. The synapse is a structure which allows the transmission of signals from one neuron to another. Actually, the neurons do not touch each other, there is a tiny space (called the synaptic cleft) between them. You can imagine that the human hair is approximately 2000 times wider than the synaptic cleft. In this tiny space, neurons transfer the chemical signals which called neurotransmitters. • Neurotransmitters (e.g. glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine) have important roles regarding pain perception. Moreover, while some neurotransmitters (e.g. glutamate) are associated with pain, some others (e.g. endorphin) can reduce pain behavior. • • • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #scienceisfun #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #medlove #studynotes #letteringchallenge #letteringlove #letteringcommunity #stationeryaddict #handlettering #bujo #artjournalpage #brushlettering #studyinspiration #artjournal #kaligraflar #kirtasiye #kirtasiyeaski #bilimokulu #bilimkulubu

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It's almost July and our pain science lettering challenge will be over soon. We will miss our lettering practices. • Here, you see some quotes of success that we like. However, we believe that success is valuable when your work serves for the public or the universe. • We hope the academic success of pain science influences the living life. • Btw, the drawing hand illustration is an artwork by @tri.shiba. The face illustration is from google pics. Unfortunately, we couldn't find the owner. • • • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #scienceletters #scienceiscool #scienceart #sciart #scienceandart #womeninscience #womeninstem #girlsinstem #Scicomm #medlove #studynotes #letteringchallenge #letteringlove #letteringcommunity #stationeryaddict #midoritravelersnotebook #travelersjournal #travelersnotebooks #handlettering #bujo #artjournalpage #brushlettering #studyinspiration #artjournal #artjournalpage #artjournal #kirtasiye #kirtasiyeaski

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》Late #scienceletters challenge with a coffee cup #doodling 😊 • 》There are two major cell populations, neurons and glial cells, in the central nervous system (CNS). • The basic working unit of the nervous system is a cell called a neuron. The human brain contains about 100 billion neurons. Although the absolute number of neurons and glial cells in the human brain remains unknown, Azevedo and colleagues estimated that the adult male human brain contains on average 86.1 +/- 8.1 billion NeuN-positive cells ("neurons") and 84.6 +/- 9.8 billion NeuN-negative ("non-neuronal") cells. A neuron consists of a cell body containing the nucleus, and special extensions called axons and dendrites. Neurons communicate with each other using their axons and dendrites. When a neuron receives a message from another neuron, it sends an electrical signal down the length of its axon. At the end of the axon, the electrical signal is converted into a chemical signal, and the axon releases chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. Neurons also have important roles to transmit the pain signal. • 》Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells of CNS. Microglia are another type of glial cells which have been considered as the principal immune-response cells in the CNS. Glial cell activation may involve in persistent pain, particularly inflammatory and neuropathic pain. These glial cells have close interactions with neurons.  For example, both astrocytes and microglia are activated in neuropathic pain, and their activation leads to pro-inflammatory responses with pathological effects, such as neuronal hyperexcitability, neurotoxicity and chronic inflammation. Thus, activation of glial cells contributes to pathophysiology of chronic pain. • 》References: Azevedo et al., J Comp Neurol. 2009; Loggia et al. Brain. 2015; Zhuo et al, Mol Brain, 2011. • 👉Anyone wants to join us for pain science lettering challenge? Just feel free to jump in and out. You can practice pain science lettering with any style, color, and medium. Please find the list of words in our story highlight! • 👉Remember to tag us, so that we could all see it. • #sciencenotes #learningwithsciencenotes #neuroscience @thescicommunity

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