Dungchen, the wailing Tibetan long horn. .
The dung-chen is an end-blown lip-reed aerophone of the natural type originating in Tibet, which is now the region occupied by China known as the Autonomous Region of Tibet. The dung-chen today is also found in the bordering areas of India, Nepal and Bhutan where Tibetan refugees settled in numbers following the Chinese occupation of Tibet in 1959. The dung-chen is a ritual instrument used primarily in Tibetan Buddhist monastic communities to accompany the chanting of religious texts. Made of three or four telescoping sections, these trumpets play only two or three notes. Tonal variety is achieved in subtle ways--by wavering the pitch, fluctuating volume and intensity and by different ways of attaching and releasing the note. It sounded like a