Portugal was a monarchy from 25 July 1139 (when the Portuguese Army acclaimed Dom Afonso Henriques as first King of Portugal, after the Battle of Ourique) until the republican revolution on 5 October 1910 (when Dom Manuel II, the last king, was forced to exile). Unlike other European monarchies, the four Royal Houses who ruled Portugal had the same ancestor, Dom Afonso Henriques, basically 3 branches of the same dynasty.
The first dynasty to rule Portugal was the Portuguese House of Burgundy (1139-1383), cadet branch of the French House of Capet, founded by Dom Afonso Henriques and extinct with Dom Fernando I, who died without a male heir.
The second was the House of Aviz (1385-1581), established by Dom João I, half-brother of King Dom Fernando I, illegitimate son of King Dom Pedro I. A new dynastic crisis following the death of the Cardinal-King Henrique, in 1581, finished with the invasion of Portugal by the Spanish Army and a dynastic union between the two crowns.
Between 1581 and 1640, Portugal was ruled by the House of Habsburg, since Felipe II of Spain was the rightful heir of the Portuguese Crown, as grandson of King Dom Manuel I and nephew of the Cardinal-King. This dynastic union ended with a revolution on 1 December 1640 and the acclamation of Dom João, Duke of Braganza, as King of Portugal. Like the Spanish kings, Dom João was a legitimate descendant of Dom Manuel I.
The fourth and last dynasty was the House of Braganza (1640-1910), a cadet branch of the House of Aviz. The Imperial Houses of Austria-Hungary and Brazil, the Royal Houses of Bavaria, Belgian, Bourbon-Parma, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Romania, Saxony, Spain, Yugoslavia, and the Princely Houses of Ligne, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Mecklenburg, Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry, Thurn und Taxis and Windisch-Graetz are connected with the House of Braganza.
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